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Old 09-17-2011, 12:58 AM
gdpawel gdpawel is offline
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Default Human Papillomavirus

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get them through sexual contact with an infected partner. They are classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis.

Although some people develop genital warts from HPV infection, others have no symptoms. Your health care provider can treat or remove the warts. In women, Pap smears can detect changes in the cervix that might lead to cancer.

Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. A vaccine can protect against several types of HPV, including some that can cause cancer.

Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink or flesh-colored bumps. You can have one or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on the cervix or around the anus. In men, genital warts are less common but might occur on the tip of the penis.

You can get genital warts during oral, vaginal or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV.

The warts might disappear on their own. If not, your health care provider can treat or remove them. The virus stays in your body even after treatment, so warts can come back.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by several types of a virus called human papillomaviruses (HPV). The virus spreads through sexual contact. Most women's bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You're at higher risk if you smoke, have many children, use birth control pills for a long time, or have HIV infection.

Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first, but later, you may have pelvic pain or bleeding from the vagina. It usually takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. Your health care provider can find abnormal cells by doing a Pap test - examining cells from the cervix under a microscope. By getting regular Pap tests and pelvic exams you can find and treat changing cells before they turn into cancer.

A vaccine for girls and young women protects against the four types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers.

NIH: National Cancer Institute
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Old 09-17-2011, 01:00 AM
gdpawel gdpawel is offline
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Default Using Two Doses of HPV Vaccine May Work as Well as Three

Two doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may offer just as much protection against cervical cancer as the three-dose regimen now being used, new U.S. government research shows.

The findings stem from an analysis of data from the National Cancer Institute's Costa Rica Vaccine Trial, in which 7,466 women were enrolled, according to a news release from the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, which published the results on Thursday.

The women were either given the HPV vaccine Cervarix or a Hepatitis A vaccine. Although researchers intended to give the women receiving Cervarix the full three doses, 20 percent of them got only one dose or two doses for a variety of reasons.

After four years, the researchers found, two doses of Cervarix offered the same level of protection against HPV infection as three. Even one dose offered a high level of protection.

While the researchers said that more studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the fewer doses, they wrote in a journal news release: "Our clinical efficacy data provide suggestive evidence that an HPV vaccine program that provides fewer doses to more women could potentially reduce cervical cancer incidence more than a standard three-dose program that uses the same total number of doses but in fewer women."

Cervarix is one of two vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to protect against the two types of HPV, 16 and 18, that are responsible for 70 percent of cervical cancer cases around the world every year.

The analysis was led by Aimee R. Kreimer, of the division of cancer epidemiology and genetics at the U.S. National Cancer Institute.

In an editorial accompanying the journal article, Cosette Marie Wheeler, of the University of New Mexico, noted, "The age-old adage of less is more may apply to HPV vaccination, and if so, the report ... represents an important step on the road to more effective and sustainable cervical cancer prevention programs."

Source: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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Old 10-03-2011, 06:32 PM
gdpawel gdpawel is offline
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Default Human Papillomavirus and Rising Oropharyngeal Cancer in USA

Researchers reported in The Journal of Clinical Oncology that throat cancers caused by human papillomavirus, transmitted during oral sex, have increased significantly in the United States in recent years. The virus is the same one that causes many cases of cervical cancer: human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16.

Those researchers tested tumor samples from 271 patients with certain types of throat cancer diagnosed from 1984 to 2004. The virus was found in only 16% of the samples from the 1980s, but in 72% of those collected after 2000.

They estimated that over all, throat cancers caused by the virus have increased to 2.6 per 100,000 people in 2004 from 0.8 cases per 100,000 people in 1988. If the trend continues, by 2020 the virus will be causing more throat cancer than cervical cancer, the study concluded.

“This is the first definitive evidence that these changes at the population level are indeed caused by HPV infection,” said Dr. Maura L. Gillison, the senior author of the new study and the chairwoman of cancer research at Ohio State University.

Dr. Kevin J. Cullen, director of the Greenebaum Cancer Center at the University of Maryland, said the study was well done. “It’s very clear that this is becoming a major epidemic,” he added.

He said his own research team had found similar increases in throat cancers in Baltimore during the last 30 years. Researchers think the trend may be attributable to increases in oral sex, particularly among younger people who think it is safer than intercourse. There are fewer than 10,000 cases a year. Most people with HPV do not develop cancer.

The throat tumors it causes, called oropharyngeal cancers, occur in specific areas: the base of the tongue and the area just behind the mouth, including the soft palate, tonsils, and the side and back walls of the throat. The oropharyngeal mucosa (lining of the throat) and the cervical mucosa (lining of the cervix) contain the identical non-keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium that harbors the HPV virus.

Some oropharyngeal cancers are not caused by the virus, but by tobacco and alcohol; their rates have been decreasing as smoking has declined.

Throat cancers caused by HPV are more treatable than those not caused by the virus. Median survival in throat cancer patients with the virus is 131 months; without it, 20 months. Virus-related throat cancers are far more common in men than in women, a difference that has not been explained.

There is no screening test for oropharyngeal cancers, no equivalent of the Pap test used to find precancerous growths on the cervix, Dr. Gillison said. Oropharyngeal cancers generally are not found until symptoms start: lumpy, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, or a lingering sore throat or earache.

She also added that patients may need surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, or some combination of those treatments. The side effects can be horrendous. It’s a very difficult therapy to get through.

Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, protect against HPV Type 16 and other strains of the virus that cause cancers and genital warts. But medical groups now recommend them only for girls, to protect against cervical cancer.

Researchers think the vaccines might also prevent some throat cancers, but cannot be sure unless the vaccines are specifically tested for that purpose. But Dr. Cullen said that the vaccines were likely to prevent the throat cancers, and should be given to boys too.

The study was paid for by the National Cancer Institute, Ohio State University and the Oral Cancer Foundation.

Human Papillomavirus and Rising Oropharyngeal Cancer Incidence in the United States

Anil K. Chaturvedi, Eric A. Engels, Ruth M. Pfeiffer, Brenda Y. Hernandez, Weihong Xiao, Esther Kim, Bo Jiang, Marc T. Goodman, Maria Sibug-Saber,
Wendy Cozen, Lihua Liu, Charles F. Lynch, Nicolas Wentzensen, Richard C. Jordan, Sean Altekruse, William F. Anderson, Philip S. Rosenberg and Maura L. Gillison

Purpose

Recent increases in incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States have been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but empirical evidence is lacking.

Patients and methods

HPV status was determined for all 271 oropharyngeal cancers (1984-2004) collected by the three population-based cancer registries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Residual Tissue Repositories Program by using polymerase chain reaction and genotyping (Inno-LiPA), HPV16 viral load, and HPV16 mRNA expression. Trends in HPV prevalence across four calendar periods were estimated by using logistic regression. Observed HPV prevalence was reweighted to all oropharyngeal cancers within the cancer registries to account for nonrandom selection and to calculate incidence trends. Survival of HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients was compared by using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses.

Results

HPV prevalence in oropharyngeal cancers significantly increased over calendar time regardless of HPV detection assay (P trend < .05). For example, HPV prevalence by Inno-LiPA increased from 16.3% during 1984 to 1989 to 71.7% during 2000 to 2004. Median survival was significantly longer for HPV-positive than for HPV-negative patients (131 v 20 months; log-rank P < .001; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.46). Survival significantly increased across calendar periods for HPV-positive (P = .003) but not for HPV-negative patients (P = .18). Population-level incidence of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers increased by 225% (95% CI, 208% to 242%) from 1988 to 2004 (from 0.8 per 100,000 to 2.6 per 100,000), and incidence for HPV-negative cancers declined by 50% (95% CI, 47% to 53%; from 2.0 per 100,000 to 1.0 per 100,000). If recent incidence trends continue, the annual number of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers is expected to surpass the annual number of cervical cancers by the year 2020.

Conclusion

Increases in the population-level incidence and survival of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States since 1984 are caused by HPV infection.

JCO October 3, 2011 JCO.2011.36.4596

[url]http://jco.ascopubs.org/content/early/2011/10/03/JCO.2011.36.4596.abstract

[url]http://www.asccp.org/PracticeManagement/Cervix/HistologyoftheNormalCervix/tabid/5842/Default.aspx

[url]http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/respiratorysystem/pharynx/epithelium/tutorial.html
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Last edited by gdpawel : 05-13-2012 at 10:43 PM. Reason: correct url address
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  #4  
Old 10-05-2011, 11:07 AM
gdpawel gdpawel is offline
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Default Study Shows Dramatic Rise in Oral Cancer Linked to HPV

A new study has shown that rates of oropharyngeal cancer, a type of oral cancer, have been increasing dramatically in the United States since 1984, with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumors accounting for a growing majority of all new cases. Researchers showed that the proportion of oropharyngeal cancers that were HPV-positive significantly increased over time, from slightly more than 16 percent of such cancers diagnosed during the 1980s to more than 70 percent diagnosed during the 2000s.

The findings could have potential implications for both treatment and cancer prevention. The main type of HPV that causes oropharyngeal cancer – HPV16 – is also a target for HPV vaccines given as a preventative measure against cervical cancer.

The oropharynx is the middle part of the throat behind the mouth, and includes the base of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat and the tonsils. Studies have shown that oropharyngeal cancers can be divided into two separate diseases with distinct causes: HPV-negative cancers, which are associated with tobacco and alcohol use; and HPV-positive cancers, which are linked to risk factors associated with sexual behavior. Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer also tend to be male and younger than those who are HPV-negative. Clinically, patients with HPV-positive cancer have better survival compared to those with HPV-negative disease.

The researchers previously showed that incidence and survival rates for oropharynx cancers significantly increased in the U.S. from 1973 to 2004, whereas the incidence rates for other head and neck cancers, such as oral cavity cancers, declined during that period.

To find out whether HPV infection was involved, researchers tested 271 archived oropharynx cancer tissue samples for HPV infection collected between 1984 and 2004 at three cancer registries. Using a variety of tests and techniques, the investigators showed that the proportion of oropharynx cancers that were HPV-positive dramatically increased over time, from 16.3 percent for cancers diagnosed during the 1980s (1984 to 1989) to 72.7 percent for cancers diagnosed during the 2000s (2000 to 2004).

They discovered that after only 16 years (1988 to 2004), the incidence of HPV-positive cancers had increased 225 percent. HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancers declined by 50 percent during that same time. The study shows that if current trends continue, then HPV-related oropharyngeal will become the major form of head and neck cancer and the leading HPV-associated cancer in the U.S., passing cervical cancer, by 2020.

Nearly all HPV-positive oropharynx cancers are caused by one type of HPV, which is targeted by currently available vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. The authors suggest that such vaccines could potentially have a role in oropharyngeal cancer prevention, but that studies are needed to evaluate the vaccines’ ability to prevent oral HPV infections.

While clinically both groups of oropharyngeal cancers seem the same, they appear different under the microscope, and treatment is different for each.

What this Means for Patients

This study shows that an increase in the rate of infection with the human papillomavirus – HPV – has led to a dramatic rise in a type of oral cancer. Patients should be aware that this infection is becoming more common, and that treatment for such cancers may be determined according to HPV status. The good news is that HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer tends to respond better to treatment than do HPV-negative cancers, and this is linked to overall improved survival for the disease over time. In addition, new prevention measures for these cancers may be developed.

Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology October 3, 2011
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Old 05-13-2012, 10:42 PM
gdpawel gdpawel is offline
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Default Cervical Cancer And HPV Information

A member wanted to give someone some support who has cervical cancer. She is a cervical cancer survivor and wanted to share her story. It's been almost 18 years of being cancer free of stage IIB cancer. Read her story at the url address and maybe it will help someone. Feel free to email weezyschannel if you need support and she will be happy to help.

Cervical Cancer and Hpv-(Human Papillomavirus) How Are They related

With young women today being more sexually active, the percentages of cervical cancer or getting precancerous cells are going up due to the fact the odds of getting HPV (Human Papillomavirus). HPV is the leading cause of getting cervical cancer. Men can carry HPV as well as women, and pass it to the woman and vice versa. On the following pages you will see how HPV and other cancers are related and what you need to do to protect yourself. Information for Men too, so make sure to read. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. HPV is linked to Cervical Cancer in most cases, but not all. It's estimated that at least 50% or more, of sexually active persons will get HPV at sometime in their lives. Even though the HPV warts are common, there are risks involved of it turning into cervical cancer or other types of cancers. HPV does spread easily just by skin to skin contact. There is not a treatment yet for HPV, however most of the persons affected don't require medical treatment as HPV does go away on it's own, but it does come back if you have been infected with the virus.

We all carry some sort of the HPV virus. There are over hundreds of different types of HPV. Some are linked to cancers, others to warts, sores, etc. So, just because you have HPV, doesn't mean you will get cancer, but your chances are greater if you get that one certain type of HPV. Most men are carriers and don't even realize it. There are just so many variables of HPV that it's way too many to mention. However; if you can protect your self, that is the best treatment anyone can ever do. HPV can be prevented by getting the HPV vaccine (Gardasil) It helps prevent, but not 100 percent guaranteed of course. HPV is the leading cause of cervical cancer, however; it does cause other cancers as well. HPV is not just linked to cervical cancer~ it is also responsible for throat cancers, penile cancer, vaginal cancers, anal cancer, vulva cancer, etc. You must be made aware of all these cancers just from HPV. Men are NOT excluded! Remember, get your pap tests yearly and talk to your children about safe guarding them from the dangers of sexual activity. We have to do this or more young women and men are going to die from cervical cancer or HPV related cancers. Please educate yourself and your kids.

About Gardasil: There is a lot of controversy about Gardasil and vaccinating young girls as young as 9, but in this day and age, it's better to protect and try to prevent, than it is to worry whether or not it sounds like you are consenting to sexual activity as a parent. You can choose not to be sexually active, that would be the sure way to stop getting cervical cancer or HPV. However; if you choose not to abstain from sex, then wear a condom or if you are a woman, make your partner wear a condom. Remember, it's contact from skin to skin that enables the virus, so it's oral sex and intercourse that can get you into trouble. Skin to skin contact can cause genital warts if you are infected with HPV, so check your partner and yourself.

How Long Does It Take For Cervical Cancer To Grow?

Cervical cancer is a very slow growing type of cancer and therefore; it can take several years before any symptoms usually start to come about. Normally, a pap smear will show any abnormal cells, but doesn't actually mean it's cancer, however; this does not happen 100% of the time, and my story will let you know about that. It is most important that you come to the reality, that you know your body and you know if something is not right. That is the main reason I am getting information out there to all the women. Cervical Cancer is cancer of the cervix. Diagnosing cervical cancer is not always that easy.

Therefore; women must be vigilant at all times and be aware of the fact that this is more common that it goes not diagnosed. The chances of you getting cervical cancer is higher if you are sexually active and do not get pap tests and if you don't do anything to protect yourself. Even though I got my regular checkups, when you read my story, you will see that it really didn't matter. That's why I stress the fact of knowing your body.

Getting your pap can ( I did not say will) save your life- so why don't you save your own and make your appointment with your Dr. It is is up to you however; to tell your doctor if something just isn't right even if your pap comes back "okay." When you continue reading; you will see why just getting a pap isn't enough, but it's something that needs to be done regardless along with pelvic exams.

As you read in my story, you see how my cancer was not picked up on a pap smear. The following pages will give you information you need to know and contact information, etc. I hope you enjoy reading what I have to offer. Please feel free to Join in the Message Boards and I would be happy to help anyone if I can. Even Cancer Survivors can help others here! This information I am supplying you with, is information I have researched for you. My story, however; is unfortunately not researched information. I am wanting to help get the word out on prevention and what I went through. If I can help just one person, then I've done my job.

[url]http://www.cervicalcancerhelp.info/Cervical_Cancer_Story.html
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Old 02-10-2015, 01:05 AM
gdpawel gdpawel is offline
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Default No Link Between HPV Vaccination, Unsafe Sexual Behavior

Adolescent girls who received the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine were no more likely to acquire a sexually transmitted infection than their nonvaccinated peers, according to a retrospective cohort study of a large, longitudinal insurance database published online February 9 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

[url]http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2109856

The finding, by Anupam B. Jena, MD, PhD, from the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical in Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues, is the latest to dispel widespread concern that the vaccine promotes sexual promiscuity.

Since 2006, when federal health officials began recommending HPV vaccination for girls as young as 11 years, many parents have hesitated over fears that doing so could promote unsafe sexual activity by lowering perceived risk of acquiring an sexually transmitted infection (STI), or that it might be perceived by children as an implicit license to have sex, according to the authors. Although several surveys of teenage girls or their parents have suggested no such association, "these studies rely on self-reported outcomes, do not follow up adolescents longitudinally, and, with the exception of 2 studies, are small and not nationally representative," the authors write.

For the current investigation, the researchers used a large longitudinal database of insurance claims from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010, to examine whether HPV vaccination was associated with an increase in STIs among females who were vaccinated compared with those who were not.

The study included 21,610 females who were vaccinated against HPV and 186,501 matched females who were not vaccinated. All participants were 12 to 18 years old at the time of enrollment. Over the course of the 5-year study, the HPV vaccination rate increased from 2.5% at the end of 2006 to 27.3% by the end of 2010.

A comparison of the sexual activity and STI incidence in both groups in the year before vaccination showed that adolescent girls in the vaccination group were more likely to be sexually active than their nonvaccinated peers, and they had higher rates of STIs before and after vaccination. In the year after vaccination, the rates of STIs increased in both groups, from 4.3 to 6.8 per 1000 of the vaccinated girls and from 2.8 to 4.2 per 1000 of those not vaccinated.

In a difference-in-difference analysis comparing changes in STI rates over time between vaccinated and nonvaccinated females, the investigators found no evidence of an association between HPV vaccination and higher STI rates (P = .74). "Even among females who were more likely to be sexually active before HPV vaccination as measured by contraceptive medication use, there was no evidence of increased unsafe sexual behavior," they write.

"[O]ur findings should be reassuring to physicians, parents, and policy makers that HPV vaccination is unlikely to promote unsafe sexual activity."

Although HPV vaccination is not associated with higher rates of STIs, the finding that vaccinated females have mean higher rates of STIs before vaccination does have public health policy implications. "First, because females with a history of STI are at higher risk of subsequent HPV exposure, early vaccination against HPV is particularly important among these females and in some instances may have been directly prompted by a preceding non-HPV STI diagnosis," the authors write. The finding also suggests that until HPV vaccination becomes widespread, "females who elect to receive the vaccine may benefit from screening questions and counseling about safe sexual practices."

In an accompanying commentary, Robert A. Bednarczyk, PhD, from the Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, notes that the new findings "should not come as a surprise to researchers in the field of HPV vaccinology and should serve as continued reassurance that HPV vaccination does not lead to sexual disinhibition." Still to be answered, he notes, is the question, "How can we use these findings to address concerns of anxious parents of adolescents?"

Although much research has been undertaken to identify barriers to HPV vaccination, less has been focused on identifying the preferred content and mode of delivery of information to mitigate these barriers, he writes. "Addressing this knowledge gap through the development and delivery of information relative to all key partners (adolescents, their parents, and their health care professionals) will be critical in removing the stigma of HPV vaccine in our efforts to fully use this vaccine."

The study was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Aging. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Dr Bednarczyk has received research funding from the National Institutes of Health. He has also received honoraria and travel support from the US Embassy University Research Program in Tbilisi, Georgia, to conduct training workshops in Georgia and travel support from the Open Society Foundations to conduct training workshops in Istanbul, Turkey.

[url]http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2109851

Citation: No Link Between HPV Vaccination, Unsafe Sexual Behavior. Medscape. Feb 09, 2015.
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