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Dartmouth Study Uses the Patient's Tumor to Form Vaccine
By Dross at 2010-11-29 22:45
Dartmouth Study Uses the Patient's Tumor to Form Vaccine

A new process for creating a personalized vaccine may become a crucial tool in helping patients with colorectal cancer develop an immune response against their own tumors. This dendritic cell (DC) vaccine, developed at Dartmouth and described in a research paper published this week in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, was used after surgical resection of metastaticterm tumors to try to prevent the growth of additional metastases.

"The results of the study suggest a new way to approach cancer treatment," said Richard Barth Jr., MD, Chief of General Surgery at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center and a member of the Gastrointestinal Clinical Oncology Group at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, who is the study's principal investigator. "Basically, we've worked out a way to use dendritic cells, which initiate immune responses, to induce an antitumor response."



2 comments | 2220 reads

by gdpawel on Wed, 2012-06-20 20:25
Another approach to cancer therapy takes advantage of the normal role of the dendritic cell as an immune educator. Dendritic cells grab antigens from viruses, bacteria, or other organisms and wave them at T cells to recruit their help in an initial T cell immune response. This works well against foreign cells that enter the body, but cancer cells often evade the self/non-self detection system. By modifying dendritic cells, researchers are able to trigger a special kind of autoimmune response that includes a T cell attack of the cancer cells. Because a cancer antigen alone is not enough to rally the immune troops, scientists first fuse a cytokine to a tumor antigen with the hope that this will send a strong antigenic signal. Next, they grow a patient's dendritic cells in the incubator and let them take up this fused cytokine-tumor antigen. This enables the dendritic cells to mature and eventually display the same tumor antigens as appear on the patient's cancer cells. When these special mature dendritic cells are given back to the patient, they wave their newly acquired tumor antigens at the patient's immune system, and those T cells that can respond mount an attack on the patient's cancer cells.

[url]http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/immunesystem/page34

by gdpawel on Wed, 2012-06-20 21:04
From the Baylor Institute for Immunology Research and Sammons Cancer Center, Baylor University MedicalCenter, Dallas, TX; and Department of Gene and Cell Medicine and Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

T cells can reject established tumours when adoptively transferred into patients, thereby demonstrating the power of the immune system for cancer therapy.

However, it has proven difficult to maintain adoptively transferred T cells in the long term. Vaccines have the potential to induce tumour-specific effector and memory T cells.

However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumours skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells.

To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment.

This can be achieved by exploiting the fast increasing knowledge about the dendritic cell (DC) system, including the existence of distinct DC subsets that respond differentially to distinct activation signals, (functional plasticity), both contributing to the generation of unique adaptive immune responses.

We foresee that these novel cancer vaccines will be used as monotherapy in patients with resected disease and in combination with drugs targeting regulatory ⁄ suppressor pathways in patients with metastatic disease.

[url]http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02317.x/pdf

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